The Mediterranean diet
The basic principles of nutrition Mediterranean diet and information on acceptable products. Scientific justification for the use of diet to health and youth preservation.
The history of the emergence
The term “Mediterranean diet” (Mediterranean diet) was first used by the American nutritionist, Ansel Keyes (Ancel Keys) in the 1940-ies(1). Since the mid-1990s, this power supply system is surely among the list of the most popular all over the world.
Despite its name, the diet is not a clear set of recommendations or instructions, and represents a synthesis of the food habits of the people of the North-East of Spain, South of France, Portugal, Greece, Italy and other Mediterranean countries.
A list of products
Version of the Mediterranean diet vary depending on the region and a list of available in this region of the products. The most healthy, Italian, version of the diet, Italians call “cucina povera“, which translates as “food of the poor.”
You need to understand that the people of postwar Europe replaced red meat with lentils not for reasons of a healthy diet, but because of total poverty. The same applies to modest the volume of food consumed — people have not been able to eat more.
The basic principles of the diet
The main aspects of the diet are the replacement of animal fats with vegetable oils (mainly olive oil), consumption of large amounts of vegetables, nuts, legumes, unrefined grains, daily consumption of fish and seafood.
The consumption of dairy products (milk, cheese and butter) in a typical Mediterranean diet is average, the consumption of meat and poultry, exactly like various eggs is low. In addition, allowed daily consumption of moderate amounts of wine.
Recipes of the Mediterranean diet
It is important to distinguish between Mediterranean cuisine and the Mediterranean diet. As such, the diet never meant for specific dishes, because the people in almost twenty countries of the Mediterranean sea, historically, prefer different food.
If the French, Spanish and Portuguese for lunch and dinner quietly drinking wine in Muslim countries (Egypt, Morocco, Turkey) the use of alcohol is limited to religion. The same applies to pork and various other products, including olive oil.
Years of study Spanish Universidad de Navarra showed that the Mediterranean diet by 30% reduces the risk of heart disease by 24% the risk of developing cancer. In addition, this diet is good for diabetes and hypertension(2).
With regard to the loss of excess weight, the effect is not so unambiguous, since the diet does not imply recommendations regarding caloric intake and consumption of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Most often, the health improvement occurred without weight loss.
The main component
Ansel Keyes was of the opinion that the main component of the Mediterranean diet is replacing saturated animal fats more beneficial plant oils and unsaturated fats, prevalent in fish and seafood(3).
The researchers note the fact that the inhabitants of the countries of the Mediterranean coast lead an active lifestyle, doing a lot of daily work and constantly being in motion. In addition, they are less susceptible to depression and bad mood.
Contained in vegetable oils in large quantities of oleic acid (up to 70% of the total) refers to an omega-9 unsaturated fatty acids and is a powerful natural antioxidant. It improves metabolism and slows the aging process.
Olive oil contains high levels of vitamins E and K, responsible for energy and immune processes in the body. Elevated levels of iodine in seafood is important for a healthy metabolism, and a lot of fiber of vegetables for digestion.
The Mediterranean diet is an eating system with lots of vegetables, seafood and vegetable fats. Despite the substantial benefits of such a diet, this diet food only normalizes, but does not serve the purpose of getting rid of excess weight.
Diet gluten free: the products
Should you avoid gluten if you are not allergic to it? Does gluten free diet lose weight? Guidelines and a list of gluten free products.
Gluten free diet for weight loss
Strictly speaking, there is no scientific evidence that the rejection of gluten containing food leads to weight loss and reduction of body weight. On the other hand, a gluten-free diet, which excludes from the diet all kinds of flour products, definitely helps to get rid of extra fat on belly and sides.
In fact, a diet without gluten is reminiscent of the growing popularity of paleodiet for bidding fast food, semi-finished products, and any other “modern” foods. Since wheat was substantially modified even in the last 100 years, the first fall under the prohibition of bread, dumplings, pasta, cakes and other pastries.
What is gluten?
Gluten (or gluten) is the substance included in the protein of wheat, barley, rye and most other grains. In fact, the more gluten the flour contains, the easier it is to make an elastic dough, turning in the air cakes and that is why the diet without gluten involves complete abstinence from farinaceous food.
Despite the fact that celiac disease or severe gluten intolerance, occurs in approximately 1% of the population, it is increasingly possible to hear the view that the followers of a healthy lifestyle it is important to fully abandon the use of gluten in food. In addition, the rejection of gluten is recommended by many diets for weight loss and weight loss.
Food gluten free
First of all, you must clearly understand that gluten is a key component of wheat protein, whereas any other cereals (e.g. rye and barley) contain several times less gluten. Gluten can not physically enter into the composition of meat, eggs and other animal products, it is not in the water, in vegetables (including potatoes and corn) and fruits.
Because beans, lentils, corn, buckwheat and quinoa do not contain in its composition of gluten, it is because they are manufactured most types of gluten-free pasta and even gluten free bread. In addition, there are special technologies to clean of gluten free oatmeal and other cereals, by nature contains a small amount of gluten.
Useful if products are gluten-free?
In itself, eating gluten-free does not make the human diet is correct, useful or appropriate for weight loss. There is a huge amount of food, gluten-free, but extremely harmful to the figures , from sugar, chocolate and ice cream, ending with potato chips and mayonnaise.
Often unscrupulous manufacturers deliberately introduce mislead customers by labeling food as gluten-free, and thus creating the impression that they “use”. Such a label is, for example, can be seen on Chupa copse. But how in the product of pure sugar may be wheat protein?
Should you avoid gluten?
According to the opinion of modern nutritionists, gluten is one of the types of food allergens that cause the immune system of some people hard to deal with them. As gluten enters the body through the stomach, it primarily disrupts the normal operations of digestion and assimilation of nutrients, gradually reducing the immune system.
However, as in the case of other food allergens (e.g. lactose), the problem is not them, but the over-reaction of the body. If one person has an Allergy to pollen, this does not mean that the other person is completely healthy, achieve a positive effect for your health, starting completely avoid colors.
The gluten-free diet: the allowed foods list
- Eggs, milk, meat and fish. Since gluten is a plant protein cereals, it by definition cannot be part of the muscle tissue of animals. All types of meat (beef, chicken, lamb, pork), fish (salmon, salmon, cod) and dairy products (cheese, yogurt, cream, milk) are allowed on a gluten-free diet.
- Any oil and animal fats. Butter, ghee lard, coconut, olive, sunflower or any other vegetable oil — all these products are composed of different fatty acids and completely do not contain in its composition of vegetable protein and, consequently, dangerous for some people gluten.
- Nuts, vegetables and fruits. The gluten-free diet allows to eat any nuts, vegetables and fruits — ranging from the usual apples and carrots, ending with dried fruit, exotic mango and avocado. The potatoes (both regular and sweet potato) does not contain in its composition of gluten and is suitable for people suffering from celiac disease.
- Legumes. Seeds of any leguminous plants (red and brown lentils, chickpeas, chickpeas, white, red and black beans) are allowed without limitation in the gluten-free diet. Together with vegetables and fruit, they become the main source of dietary fiber in the diet.
- Rice, corn and buckwheat. Gluten is not contained in the composition of all types of rice (white and brown). Buckwheat and other pseudoterranova (quinoa, amaranth, sorghum) only resemble the grass, being grass, they also are gluten free. Corn, although technically considered a cereal culture, it is also allowable with a gluten-free diet.
Direct positive effect of a gluten-free diet will be observed only in those few people, the body which do not tolerate gluten. However, without a doubt, the rejection of gluten in cakes, white bread, pizza and other “empty calories” will be definitely useful for normalizing weight and perfectly healthy human.
The main principles of nutrition on a low carbohydrate diet. What you can eat and what is forbidden? Practical advice and lists of foods for quick weight loss.
What is the meaning of low-carb diets?
Low-carb diet is one of the most popular and effective strategies to reduce excess weight. The main difference between a low-carb diet from other similar power systems is that it can stick quite a long time — in contrast to the keto-diet or no carb diet, implying almost complete elimination of carbohydrates from the diet.
Low-carb diet allows eating about 100-150 grams of carbohydrates with a low glycemic index per day — in other words, you don’t have to eat alone protein foods, and you will be able to use buckwheat and other cereals. This is especially important for men engaged in weight training, as without the carbs my muscles grow.
Why carbohydrates in the diet need to cut?
The main nutrients for the human body are proteins (proteins), fats and carbohydrates. Carbohydrates, in turn, are divided into quick (simple) and slow. During digestion, simple carbohydrates rather quickly get into the blood in the form of glucose, causing release of the hormone insulin and provoking a sharp rise of energy.
The problem is that chronically high insulin levels gradually blocks the body’s ability to use fat reserves as fuel. If the person every 2-3 hours “fueling” your body with simple carbohydrates, its metabolism breaks down and the body stops to burn fat. This ultimately leads to the development of obesity.
How many carbs for life?
Despite the fact that a limited amount of time a person can exist completely without carbohydrates (this principle is based keto-diet), for the normal functioning of the body most people need at least 100-150 g of carbohydrates per day. And about one third of this amount must be important for intestinal tissue.
Athletes involved in strength training to gain muscle, you need at least two times more carbohydrates — not less than 300 g per day. That is why the low-carb diet is primarily intended to reduce (or maintain) body weight, however, is not suitable for those who want to build muscle.
Low-carb diet for men
FitSeven already wrote about the fact that for successful weight loss most men need only to follow a diet, whereas the girls must combine diet and cardiovascular exercise. However, low-carb diet is the “advanced” version of the men’s diet for weight loss — first, it is important to learn to eat properly and then go to any diet.
If you’ve never thought about what foods contain carbohydrates, dedicate at least 2-3 weeks with the following simple diet for weight loss. Then you can try a low-carb diet, and another month to start to combine this diet with cardio. Read more in the material “Scientific strategy of weight loss”.
Low-carb diet: the products table
Conventionally, there are three categories of carbohydrate. To high carbohydrate are sweet sodas, juices, fruit, pastries, sweets, sugar; sredneplodny — cereals (including buckwheat, quinoa , etc), green vegetables, lettuce; watermelon meat, fish, cheese, cottage cheese. Potatoes, pasta and rice are high carbohydrate.
In fact, low-carb diet forbids (or maximum limits) to consume any products of the first category. Sredneplastichnye products is acceptable, but in not more than 150 g of net carbohydrates per day. This critical importance to calculate at least approximate the amount of carbs and calories per day.
How to count the carbohydrates in the diet?
In order to determine the number of carbohydrates in foods, it is primarily necessary to scrutinize the composition of this product on the packaging. In addition, it is important to consider the size of the portions eaten and whether the product boiling or other treatment. For example, in 100 g of dry buckwheat contains about 70 g of carbohydrates, however, cooking the buckwheat is mushy.
From 100 g of dry buckwheat makes about 300-400 g of buckwheat cereal (total weight depends on the amount of water and the extent of boiling soft) — that is why you need to know how much it was used “dry” product. In addition, there are no single digits in the content of calories or carbohydrates in the soup, cutlets and other dishes ready, because it all depends on the recipe.
Low-carb diet: what to eat?
Remember that the main purpose of a low-carb diet — not to starve you starvation, but only to reduce the amount of simple carbohydrates in the diet, replacing them with full nutrients.You don’t have to give up eating, limiting ourselves to a bowl of steamed broccoli. It is only important to completely eliminate any sweets, bread and overly starched products.
You can eat meat, fish, mushrooms, dairy products (eggs, cheese), green vegetables (broccoli, green beans, spinach, celery), lettuce, nuts, berries (in small amounts). But, again, the meaning of a low-carb diet is not just choosing products from the list, and counting, exactly how many net carbs do you eat per day.
Low-carb diet is a diet that involves reducing carbohydrate intake to 100-150 g per day. However, despite the fact that you can find such a list of “allowed” and “prohibited” products, the essence of this diet is to comply with the above standards of carbohydrate intake and not in the choice of food from the list.